In 1952, David Tudor sat down in front of a piano for four minutes and thirty-three seconds and did nothing. The piece 4?33--written by John Cage, is possibly the most famous and important piece in twentieth century avant-garde. 4?33--was a distillation of years of working with found sound, noise, and alternative instruments. In one short piece, Cage broke from the history of classical composition and proposed that the primary act of musical performance was not making music, but listening.
Born in Los Angeles in 1912, Cage studied for a short time at Pamona College, and later at UCLA with classical composer Arthur Schoenberg. There he realized that the music he wanted to make was radically different from the music of his time. I certainly had no feeling for harmony, and Schoenberg thought that that would make it impossible for me to write music. He said You'll come to a wall you won't be able to get through. So I said, I'll beat my head against that wall. But it wasn't long before Cage found that there were others equally interested in making art in ways that broke from the rigid forms of the past. Two of the most important of Cage's early collaborators were the dancer Merce Cunningham and the painter Robert Rauschenberg.
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